(chem). An important raw material in the chemical industry. It is a by-product of the DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION of wood. It can also be obtained by oxidizing ALCOHOL. The chemical make-up of acetic acid is CH3COOH.
(alc). YEAST that has been dried, but in which the yeast cells still can be activated.
F – levure seche active
S – levadura activa secada
ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING
(sol). Warming an interior space with heat collected mechanically through SOLAR COLLECTORS. The collection and distribution of this warm air requires additional external ENERGY to operate pumps, motors, valves, etc.
(constr) (sol). Sun-dried brick of clay and straw. Also the clay and soil used for making such bricks. Adobe is high in THERMAL MASS and is useful in low-cost building construction.
F – adobe
S – adobe
(chem). The process through which carbonaceous materials are able to compress and hold on their surfaces large quantities of gas. Also, the physical adhesion of molecules to the surfaces of solids without causing a chemical reaction.
(sol) (meas). The ratio of the amount of light reflected by a surface to the light falling onto it.
F – albedo
S – albedo
(chem). A class of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which occurs widely in nature and is used in solvents, antifreezes, chemical manufacture, and as a fuel. Alcohol commonly is obtained by FERMENTATION. (See also: BUTYL ALCOHOL, ETHYL ALCOHOL, and METHYL ALCOHOL)
(bio) (biocon) (gen). Fresh and saltwater aquatic plants, usually microscopic in size, but including seaweed. They are valuable in waste treatment, as a protein source for humans, as animal feed, and as a FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS DIGESTERS.
F – algues
S – algas
(chem) (biocon). Any of various BASES, which neutralize ACIDS to form SALTS. Bases are important in maintaining the chemical balance in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
F – alcali
S – alcali
(elec). A BATTERY that uses sodium or potassium hydroxide as an electrolyte, and nickel-oxide flakes and powdered iron or nickel-cadmium for its active plates.
F – accumulateur alcalin
S – pila alcalina
(chem). A general name for hydrocarbons of the METHANE series.
F – paraffine
S – alcano
(elec). An electric current that periodically reverses its direction. Generally abbreviated as ac.
F – courant alternatif
S – courriente continua
ALTERNATIVE COMBUSTION ENGINES
(auto). Alternatives to the spark ignition and the diesel combustion engines. Among the more developed designs are the GAS TURBINE and STIRLING ENGINES.
F – substituts aux moteurs a combustion
S – motores de combustion alterna
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES
(gen). Sources of ENERGY different from those generally employed by a user. The term usually refers to RENEWABLE ENERGY sources such as SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, GEOTHERMAL POWER, HYDROPOWER, etc. The use of alternative energy sources is attractive because of the  high price and limited availability of petroleum-based fuels;  the pollution that is associated with the burning of FOSSIL FUELS; and  the expense and dangers of nuclear power.
(alc) (biocon). Free from moisture. The term applies to oxides, SALTS, and other substances that do not contain water.
F – anhydre
S – anhidro
(alc). ALCOHOL that is almost completely free from water. Alcohol must be ANHYDROUS to be mixed with gasoline to form GASAHOL. Alcohol and water cannot be separated beyond 199.99 PROOF. At that CONCENTRATION, they form an AZEOTROPE and vaporize at the same temperature.
(biocon). BIOMASS grown in fresh or saltwater, including ALGAE, seaweed, etc.
F – biomasse aquatique
S – biomasa acuatica
(hydr). A CHANNEL or trough built to convey water For irrigation, to operate a HYDROPOWER plant, or for household use. The water in aqueducts generally flows by means of gravity, although pumps may also be used.
F – aqueduc
S – acueducto
(hydr). Any geological formation containing water, especially one that supplies the water for wells, springs, etc.
F – aquifere
S – acuifera
(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL constructed to provide maximum EFFICIENCY in winds of various speeds and from different directions.
(elec) (wind). An electrical GENERATOR that produces ALTERNATING CURRENT, matching an existing POWER source so the two sources can be combined to power one LOAD. These generators are often used with WINDMILLS to provide power to buildings that already receive power from an electric utility.
F – generateur asynchrone
S – generador asincronico
(gen). The pressure exerted by the Earth’s atmosphere at any given point, generally measured on a scale based on the pressure of air at sea level.
F – pression atmospherique
S – presion atmosferica
(sol). An unroofed, partially roofed, or fully roofed courtyard or room in a dwelling, which allows sunlight to reach adjoining rooms. It is often used for PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING.
(impl) (alc). A rotating, screw-type device that moves material through a tube. In ALCOHOL production, it is used to transfer grains from storage to the grinding site, and from the grinding site to the COOKER.
F – vrille d’alimentation
S – barrena
(impl). A device that automatically maintains the FLOW of hot or cold air into a room.
F – registre automatique
S – regulador de tiro automatico
(sol). The use of a device that allows SOLAR COLLECTORS to “track” or follow the sun during the day without manual adjustment.
(gen) (meas). That part of the total ENERGY produced by a system that can be applied usefully. EFFICIENCY is a measure oF available energy.
F – energie disponible
S – energia disponible
AVERAGE WIND SPEED
(wind) (meas). The most common WIND VELOCITY over a specified period of time.
F – vitesse moyenne du vent
S – velocidad promedio del viento
(gen). An imaginary line passing through the center of a body, about which the body rotates. (Plural: axes)
F – axe de rotation
S – axis
(gen). A supporting member that carries a wheel. It either rotates with the wheel to transmit mechanical POWER, or allows the wheel to rotate freely on it.
F – essieu
S – eje
(chem) (alc). The chemical term for two liquids that, at a certain CONCENTRATION, boil at the same temperature. For example, ETHANOL and water cannot be separated further than 199.9 PROOF because at this concentration they form an azeotrope and vaporize together.
(biocon). A law stating that the VAPOR PRESSURE of a liquid is lowered when a non-VOLATILE substance is dissolved in it. The pressure is lowered by an amount proportional to the CONCENTRATION of the solution.
F – loi de von Babo
S – ley de Babo
(gen). The emission of smoke through cooking holes or other openings in a wood-burning or CHARCOAL stove. It occurs when poor DRAFT in the CHIMNEY causes air to pass back down into the stove.
F – retour de fumee
S – contracorriente de humo
(wind) (arc). Support bars across the back of the SAILS of a WINDMILL.
(bio). Any of numerous single-celled micro-organisms occurring in a wide variety of forms, existing either as free-living organisms or as parasites, having a wide range of biochemical properties. Bacteria are necessary for DIGESTION and FERMENTATION. (Singular: bacterium)
F – bacteries
S – bacteria
(biocon). The chemical breakdown of ORGANIC MATTER by micro-organisms.
F – decomposition bacterienne
S – descomposicion bacteriana
(gen). A metal plate or other artificial obstruction used to check or deflect the FLOW of FLUIDS.
F – deflecteur
S – desviador
(biocon). The fibrous residue remaining after the extraction of the juice from sugar cane. It may be used as a fuel.
(biocon). A process of BIOGAS production in which the material to be digested is loaded into the DIGESTER at the start of the process. A SEED may also be added at this time. The digester is then sealed and the contents left to FERMENT. At completion, the digested SLUDGE is removed and the tank reloaded. Daily gas production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the DIGESTION cycle.
F – digestion a charge initiale
S – digestion por tandas
(alc). A batch DISTILLATION process of ALCOHOL production in which the material to be distilled is loaded into a STILL at the start of the process. The entire volume is heated and left to distill. At completion, the distilled MASH is removed and the still reloaded. Daily alcohol production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the distillation cycle.
(elec). A group of two or more CELLS or ACCUMULATORS electrically connected in series or parallel. Batteries are used to store electrical ENERGY.
F – batterie
S – bateria
(wind) (impl). An automatic switch that disconnects a BATTERY during its charge if the voltage of the wind charger falls below or rises above that of the battery, within certain limits. A battery cut-out is a battery protection device.
F – coupe-circuit de batterie
S – interruptor de bateria
(gen). A machine part that supports and guides a shaft, pivot, or wheel that slides, rotates, or oscillates in or on it.
(chem) (gen). The conversion of ORGANIC WASTE into ENERGY PRODUCTS through the action of micro-organisms. Chemically, this is the reduction of complex organic compounds into simpler, more stable forms.
(biocon) (meas). The amount of BIOMASS that can be produced in a given areA. It usually is expressed in weight units per area measurement per unit of time.
F – production de biomasse
S – produccion de biomasa
(biocon (meas). A pollution-control method in which living organisms are used to test the EFFLUENT from a DIGESTER to determine whether it is safe to discharge the effluent into a body of water. It may also be used to test the quality of waters downstream from a digester discharge point.
F – controle biologique
S – biocontrol
(fos). Any naturally-occurring hydrocarbon, especially solid hydrocarbons such as asphalt, wax, pitch, and Gilsonite.
F – bitume
S – bitumen
(sol). A surface that completely absorbs all SOLAR RADIATION that strikes it.
(gen). A process by which two pieces of metal are joined using a nonferrous alloy with a lower melting point than either of the two metals being joined.
F – brasage
S – soldadura con laton
(wind) (arc). The main lateral beam below the WIND SHAFT.
F – poutrelle maitresse
S – viga de costado
(hydr). A sophisticated type of WATER WHEEL into which water enters below the top of the wheel and is kept in the BUCKETS until being discharged at or near the lowest point on the wheel. Breast wheels generally operate best with HEADS amounting to less than the diameter of the wheel. High breast wheels (where the water enters above the center shaft) can approach 65 percent ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY. (Syn: breast-shot wheel)
F – roue de poitrine
S – rueda de costado
(wind). In general, any light to moderate wind. (See also: BEAUFORT SCALE)
(fos). A type of fuel that has been finely ground and compressed in pressure molds. It is usually made from low-grade coal, coke, CHARCOAL, or BIOMASS, and is mixed with a binder such as STARCH, tar, cement, pitch, or asphalt.
F – briquette
S – briqueta
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT
(heat) (meas). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree FAHRENHEIT under stated conditions of temperature and pressure. It is a standard unit for measuring quantity of HEAT ENERGY. Generally abbreviated as BTU.
F – British thermal unit
S – unidad termica britanica
(alc). A perforated cap on the plates of a DISTILLATION COLUMN, used to ensure that the vapor and condensed liquid mix thoroughly.
F – cloche de barbotage
S – casquete de burbujeo
(biocon). A safety device attached to a BIOGAS DIGESTER to ensure that the gas is free of air, since an air and gas mixture would be explosive. The gas is “bubbled” through a container of water before being used or stored. If LIMEWATER is used instead of water, the bubble chamber can also be used to SCRUB the gas. In addition, the bubble chamber serves as a SPARK ARRESTER.
(hydr). A chain loop with BUCKETS attached to it at regular intervals. The chain runs over sprocket wheels. As each bucket passes by a water source, water fills the bucket, providing POWER and propelling the chain further along.
F – noria a godets
S – transportador de cangilones
(biocon) (chem). The capacity of a solution to resist pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) changes when small amounts of ACID or ALKALI are added. In the case of DIGESTED SLUDGE, the ammonium and bicarbonate ions are mainly responsible for buffering.
(meas). The international temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 [degrees] and boils at 100 [degrees]. To convert from degrees Celsius to degrees FAHRENHEIT, multiply the temperature in degrees Celsius by 9/5 (or 1.8) and add 32. To convert from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature and then multiply by 5/9. Abbreviated as C. (Syn: centigrade)
(gen). The inertial force repelling a body away from the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or away from the AXIS around which it rotates. The opposite of CENTRIPETAL FORCE.
F – force centrifuge
S – centrifuga, fuerza
(gen). A force attracting a body toward the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or toward the AXIS around which it rotates. The apposite of CENTRIFUGAL FORCE.
F – force centripete
S – centripeta , fuerza
(constr). A method of making ADOBE bricks in which chalk is added to the clay, straw, and water. Chalk adobe is useful as a THERMAL MASS.
F – adobe a la chaux
S – mezcla de adobe y creta
(hydr). The bed of a stream or waterway. (See also: CANAL)
F – chenal 
S – cauce
(fos) (gen). A dark-colored or black porous form of CARBON made from vegetable or animal substances. Charcoal commonly is made by charring wood in a KILN or RETORT from which air is partially excluded. It is used for FUEL, and in various mechanical, artistic, and chemical processes. By using DISTILLATION and retorts to produce charcoal, several valuable products can be collected that would otherwise be lost, including COMBUSTIBLE GASES, CREOSOTE OIL, METHANOL, soluble tar, and combustible pitch.
(sol). A vertical window that is placed high in a wall near the eaves for light, HEAT GAIN, and ventilation.
F – lanterneau
S – claraboya
(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system in which distilled water, antifreeze, and/or corrosion inhibitors are circulated through the COLLECTORS and storage tanks in a closed loop. Heat picked up from the collectors by the circulating FLUIDS is transferred to the water in the storage tanks through the closed loop or other HEAT EXCHANGERS.
(prod). The combustion of coal to form a gas suitable for use as a fuel. This is usually done in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR.
F – gazeification du charbon
S – gasificacion del carbon
(constr). A type of ADOBE in which corn cobs are added to clay, water, and straw. Adobe bricks are reinforced by this addition of cobs during the brick-making process. Cob adobe is a useful THERMAL MASS.
(sol). A device to trap SOLAR RADIATION and convert it into usable heat. The term collector frequently refers to an insulated frame containing a panel made from an ABSORBER PLATE and GLAZING. More broadly, a well-designed building with windows facing the equator may also be considered a collector, as can other solar devices that capture SOLAR RADIATION in the form of heat.
(sol). A series of lenses or mirrors used to concentrate SOLAR RADIATION onto PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS, which convert the sunlight into electricity. The concentrated sunlight increases the output of each cell, thus reducing the total number of cells required to produce a given amount of electricity. (See also: PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY)
(biocon). The continuous feeding of BIOMASS into a BIOGAS DIGESTER, with the removal of an equivalent volume of EFFLUENT. The process is usually started with the addition of a SEED. It may take several DETENTION TIMES before the process becomes steady. For many purposes, this is a more EFFICIENT and convenient process than BATCH DIGESTION. Processes involving daily addition and removal are more properly described as semi-continuous.
(constr) (sol). An empty area within the walls of a building in which the air remains motionless and acts as insulation. Dead air space may be included in a SOLAR COLLECTOR between the ABSORBER PLATE and the GLAZING, between glazings, and in the CASING.
(wind). A log or a mass of concrete or steel buried in the ground, to which GUY WIRES for supporting towers and poles are attached.
F – point fixe d’ammarage
S – macizo de anclaje
(bio) (chem). Decay of ORGANIC MATTER due to the action of BACTERIA. Also the separation of a substance into its component parts by chemical action.
F – decomposition
S – descomposicion
DEEP CYCLE BATTERY
(elec) (wind). A BATTERY that can be fully charged and discharged without shortening its life. They are often used with WIND GENERATORS.
F – batterie a cycle profond
S – bateria de gran ciclo
DEGREE DAY COOLING
(gen) (meas). A measurement used to evaluate the summer cooling requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is above 75 [degrees] F (24 [degrees] C), one cooling degree day is counted.
F – degre-jour de refroidissement
S – enfriamiento de grado-dia
DEGREE DAY HEATING
(gen) (meas). A measurement used to determine the winter heating requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is below 65 [degrees] F (19 [degrees] C) is a heating degree day.
F – degre-jour de chauffage
S – calefaccion de grado-dia
(gen). The removal of moisture from a substance.
F – deshydratation
S – deshidratacion
(alc). The process of adding a substance, often METHANOL, to ETHANOL to make it unfit for human consumption.
(alc). A by-product of ETHANOL production. Once ethanol has been driven from the MASH in an ALCOHOL STILL, the remaining solids are known as distiller’s grain. When dried, these grains can be used as high protein animal feed. The dried distiller’s grain commonly is abbreviated as DDG. (Syn: BREWER‘S DRIED GRAIN)
(biocon). DIGESTION in which more than 10 percent of the SLURRY is solid material.
F – digestion seche
S – digestion seca
(biocon). An area prepared for drying EFFLUENT after it hs been removed from a METHANE DIGESTER. Dried effluent can be used as fertilizer or as animal feed.
F – lit de sechage
S – lecho secador
DRY ORGANIC WASTE
(gen). ORGANIC WASTE that is free from moisture. This type of waste can be stored for long periods before being used as a fuel or fertilizer. (See also: DRY BIOMASS)
F – dechets organiques secs
S – desperdicios organicos secos
(biocon). SLURRY that is more than 10 percent solid material.
F – boue seche
S – fango seco
(geo). An ENERGY source obtained when hot water boils in an underground reservoir. As the steam rises, some of it condenses on surrounding rack. The uncondensed steam that reaches the surface is called dry steam, and may be tapped and used in STEAM TURBINES.
F – vapeur seche
S – vapor seco
(auto) (gen). A gasoline or diesel engine equipped to operate on an alternative fuel, either alternately or in combination (e.g., gasoline-BIOGAS, diesel-biogas, gasoline-WOOD GAS, diesel-wood gas).
F – moteur polycarburant
S – motor a doble combustible
(bio). Manure, usually without urine. Dried dung can be burned directly as a fuel or used as a fertilizer.
(heat). A relatively inefficient KILN made by mounding earth over the materials to be burned. Used in traditional CHARCOAL production.
F – meule a charbon de bois
S – horno de tierra
(gen). A wheel in which the axle is not at the center point, but slightly off-center.
F – roue excentrique
S – rueda excentrica
(heat). A HEAT EXCHANGER that recovers heat from FLUE gases and uses it to heat feedwater or combustion air.
F – economiseur
S – economizador
(heat) (meas). The ratio of actual heat transfer in a HEAT EXCHANGER to the maximum possible heat transfer.
F – efficacite
S – eficacia
(gen). The ratio of the ENERGY output to the energy input. Efficiency is usually expressed as a percentage.
F – rendement
S – eficiencia
(biocon).  SLURRY that has been removed from a BIOGAS PLANT.  Liquid sewage after having passed through any stage in its purification.
F – effluent
S – efluente
(sol). The ratio of RADIANT ENERGY emitted by a body to that emitted by a perfect BLACKBODY. A perfect blackbody has an emissivity of one; a perfect REFLECTOR, an emissivity of zero.
F – emissivite
S – emisividad
(sol) (meas). A rating of the ability of a material to give off heat as RADIANT ENERGY.
F – emittance
S – emitancia
(gen). The capacity of a body to do work; POWER in action.
F – energie
S – energia
ENERGY CAPABILITY OF AN ELECTRICITY-PRODUCING DEVICE
(gen) (meas). The maximum amount of electricity that an electricity-producing device may produce under the best conditions during a given period. ENERGY capability is determined by the mechanical EFFICIENCY of the device.
F – capacite energetique d’un dispositif produisant du courant
S – capacidad energetica de un aparato productor de electricidad
(gen). Practices and measures that increase the EFFICIENCY with which ENERGY is used or produced.
F – conservation de l’energie
S – conservacion de energia
(gen). The amount of ENERGY consumed in the form in which it is obtained by the user. This term excludes electrical generation and distribution losses. It also is called net energy consumption.
F – consommation d’energie
S – consumo de energia
(gen). The act of changing ENERGY from one form to another (e.g., WIND ENERGY to mechanical energy).
Mechanical -> Electrical
Wind Generator 40%
Water Turbine 68-93%
Steam Power Plant 40%
Mechanical -> Mechanical
Solar -> Thermal
Flat Collector 40-60%
Chemical -> Thermal
Wood Combustion Burner 85% maximum
Chemical -> Electrical
Chemical -> Chemical
Biogas Digester 40-60%
F – conversion de l’energie
S – conversion de energia
ENERGY PATTERN FACTOR
(wind). The ratio of the available ENERGY in all of the winds in a particular location over a certain period of time to the energy that would be available if the WIND SPEED over that period of time were constant at the mean wind speed over that period of time.
F – coefficient de diagramme energetique
S – factor energetico del viento
(gen). Fuels that can be used to generate ENERGY. Also, the by-products that result when fuels are produced.
F – combustibles energetiques
S – productos energeticos
(gen) (meas). The ability to convert ENERGY into other forms, such as heat or a chemical reaction, so that it can be retrieved for later use. Also the development, design, construction, and operation of devices for storing energy until needed. The technology includes devices such as batteries, pumped storage for hydroelectric generation and compressed gas.
(alc). The use of ENZYMES to convert STARCH into simple sugars. This is a stage in the production of ETHANOL.
F – saccharification enzymatique
S – hidrolisis enzimica
(chem) (alc). Organic substances that are produced in the cells of living organisms, and which cause specific chemical changes. Enzymes are produced by BACTERIA or FUNGI and are used in the liquefication and SACCHARIFICATION steps of ALCOHOL production.
F – enzymes
S – enzimas
(wind). Of, relating to, formed by, or deposited by the wind or air currents. (Syn: Aeolian)
F – eolien, eolienne
S – eolico
(sol). Either of two times of year when the sun passes over the celestial equator and when the length of day and night are almost equal.
(refrig). The exchange of heat from air to a water spray or wet surface through a reversible THERMODYNAMIC process. Air passing through the water is cooled as the water evaporates. The process can be reversed by condensing the vapor on a cool surface.
F – refroidissement par evaporation
S – enfriamiento evaporante
(heat). Air that passes through a COMBUSTION ZONE in excess of the quantity theoretically required for complete combustion.
F – exces d’air
S – aire excesivo
EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR RADIATION
(sol) (meas). The amount of SOLAR RADIATION that would strike a surface if that surface were outside the Earth’s atmosphere. (See also: CLEARNESS INDEX)
(meas). The temperature scale in which water freezes at 32 oF and boils at 212 oF. Temperatures of the Fahrenheit scale can be converted to equivalent temperatures on the CELSIUS or Centigrade scale by first subtracting 32 degrees from the Fahrenheit temperature, then multiplying the result by 5/9 according to the formula: .
F – Fahrenheit
S – Fahrenheit
(wind). A strong, cold, downhill wind.
F – vent catabatique
S – racha de viento
(wind) (arc). A small, secondary ROTOR set at a right angle to the main ROTOR of a WINDMILL to provide the motive POWER to turn the CAP to face the wind.
F – gouvernail
S – timon
(wind). A multi-BLADED WINDMILL that is based on an Early American design and is used primarily for water pumping.