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Renewable Energy Dictionary

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Renewable Energy Dictionary

 
ABSORBENT
(refrig). The less VOLATILE of the two working FLUIDS used in an absorption cooling device.
F – absorbant
S – absorbente
ABSORBENT OIL
(refrig). A type of oil used in an absorption cooling device.
F – huile absorbante
S – aceite absorbente
ABSORBER PLATE
(sol). A dark surface that absorbs SOLAR RADIATION and converts it into heat; a component of a FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR.
F – plaque d’absorption
S – placa de absorcion
ABSORPTANCE
(sol) (meas). The ratio between the SOLAR RADIATION absorbed by a surface and the total amount of solar radiation that strikes it.
F – taux d’absorptivite
S – coeficiente de absorcion
ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER
(sol). An air conditioner designed to use a SOLAR HEATED liquid. Such a system provides space cooling through use of ABSORBER PLATES, VOLATILE FLUIDS, HEAT EXCHANGERS, and CONDENSERS.
F – climatiseur a absorption
S – aire acondicionado por absorcion
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION
(refrig). A cooling system that uses heated liquid to activate the chilling process.
F – refrigeration par absorption
S – refrigeracion por absorcion
AC
(elec). Abbreviation for ALTERNATING CURRENT.
F – CA
S – C.A.
ACCELERATOR
(impl). A mechanism that controls the speed of a vehicle or other device.
F – accelerateur
S – acelerador
ACCUMULATION
(gen) (elec). The action of collecting or gathering. In electricity, the charging of a BATTERY or the storage of electric POWER.
F – accumulation
S – acumulacion
ACCUMULATOR
(gen). A CELL, SOLAR POND, THERMAL MASS, or other device to store ENERGY.  :F – accumulateur
S – acumulador
AC-DC
(elec). Pertaining to a device that will operate on either ALTERNATING CURRENT or DIRECT CURRENT.
F – CA-CC
S – CA-CC
ACETATE
(chem) (sol). A compound composed of the SALTS of ACETIC ACID or the acetylation products of acetic acid, such as CELLULOSE acetate. Certain acetates can be used as GLAZING on SOLAR COLLECTORS.
F – acetate
S – acetato
ACETIC ACID
(chem). An important raw material in the chemical industry. It is a by-product of the DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION of wood. It can also be obtained by oxidizing ALCOHOL. The chemical make-up of acetic acid is CH3COOH.
F – acide acetique
S – acido acetico
ACID
(bio) (biocon). A compound that dissociates or separates in a water solution to provide hydrogen ions. Acid forms a SALT when mixed with ALKALI, and is important in ANAEROBIC DIGESTION and FERMENTATION.
F – acide
S – acido
ACID DIGESTION
(biocon). The “first phase” of BIOGAS production, in which complex molecules are broken down into smaller ones.
F – digestion acide
S – digestion de acido
ACID HYDROLYSIS
(chem) (alc). A chemical process that uses ACID to convert STARCH to sugar. This is the “first phase” in ETHANOL production.
F – hydrolysation acide
S – hidrolisis de acido
ACROMETER
(gen) (meas). An instrument used to measure the density of gases.
F – acrometre
S – acrometro
ACTINOMETER
(sol) (meas). An instrument used to measure DIRECT RADIATION from the sun.
F – actinometre
S – actinometro
ACTIVE DRIED YEAST
(alc). YEAST that has been dried, but in which the yeast cells still can be activated.
F – levure seche active
S – levadura activa secada
ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING
(sol). Warming an interior space with heat collected mechanically through SOLAR COLLECTORS. The collection and distribution of this warm air requires additional external ENERGY to operate pumps, motors, valves, etc.
F – chauffage solaire actif
S – calefaccion solar activa
ADAPTED SEED
(biocon). INOCULUM used during the START-UP of a BIOGAS DIGESTER that has been obtained from another digester with similar FEEDSTOCK composition and operating under similar conditions.
F – germe adapte
S – semilla adaptada
ADOBE
(constr) (sol). Sun-dried brick of clay and straw. Also the clay and soil used for making such bricks. Adobe is high in THERMAL MASS and is useful in low-cost building construction.
F – adobe
S – adobe
ADSORPTION
(chem). The process through which carbonaceous materials are able to compress and hold on their surfaces large quantities of gas. Also, the physical adhesion of molecules to the surfaces of solids without causing a chemical reaction.
F – adsorption
S – adsorcion
AEOLIAN
(wind). (See: EOLIAN)
F – eolien, – ienne
S – eolico
AEROBIC
(bio). Pertaining to micro-organisms that require FREE OXYGEN to live.
F – aerobie
S – aerobio
AEROBIC BACTERIA
(bio) (biocon). BACTERIA living on FREE OXYGEN that is derived from the air. Aerobic bacteria break down ORGANIC MATTER during COMPOSTING.
F – bacteries aerobies
S – bacteria aerobia
AEROBIC DECOMPOSITION
(biocon). (See: AEROBIC BACTERIA)
F – decomposition aerobie
S – descomposicion aerobia
AFFORESTATION
(gen). Forest crops established by purposeful planting on land previously not used for tree crops.
F – boisement
S – conversion en bosque
AFTERBURNER
(gen). An air pollution abatement device that removes undesirable organic gases through incineration.
F – postcombustion
S – quemador auxiliar
AIR BRAKES
(wind) (arc). Longitudinal SHUTTERS that are sometimes incorporated in PATENT SAILS to reduce the speed of SAIL rotation in strong winds.
F – freins d’ailes
S – frenos de aire
AIR DIFFUSER
(gen). A device that delivers air into a room to mix with the room air.
F – diffuseur d’air
S – difusor de aire
AIRFOIL
(wind). A curved surface designed to create aerodynamic LIFT forces when air flows around it.
F – voilure d’aile
S – plano aerodinamico
AIR-GAS RATIO
(chem). The ratio of the air volume to the gas volume. It can be adjusted to change the character of combustion.
F – rapport air-gaz
S – relacion de aire-gas
AIR HEATING SYSTEM
(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system, which heats air in a SOLAR COLLECTOR and uses the heated air as the HEAT-TRANSFER MEDIUM to the rest of the system.
F – chauffage d’air, systeme de
S – sistema de calefaccion del aire
AIR-TYPE COLLECTOR
(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR designed to use air as its HEAT-TRANSFER MEDIUM.
F – capteur a air
S – colector solar tipo aire
AIR VELOCITY
(wind). (See: WIND VELOCITY)
F – vitesse d’ecoulement de l’air
S – velocidad del aire
ALBEDO
(sol) (meas). The ratio of the amount of light reflected by a surface to the light falling onto it.
F – albedo
S – albedo
ALCOHOL
(chem). A class of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which occurs widely in nature and is used in solvents, antifreezes, chemical manufacture, and as a fuel. Alcohol commonly is obtained by FERMENTATION. (See also: BUTYL ALCOHOL, ETHYL ALCOHOL, and METHYL ALCOHOL)
F – alcool
S – alcohol
ALCOHOL CONDENSER
(alc). (See: CONDENSER)
F – condenseur d’alcool
S – condensador de alcohol
ALCOHOL STILL
(alc). (See: STILL)
F – alambic de distillation
S – alambique de alcohol
ALCOHOL VAPOR
(alc). ALCOHOL in its gaseous state.
F – vapeur d’alcool
S – vapor de alcohol
ALGAE
(bio) (biocon) (gen). Fresh and saltwater aquatic plants, usually microscopic in size, but including seaweed. They are valuable in waste treatment, as a protein source for humans, as animal feed, and as a FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS DIGESTERS.
F – algues
S – algas
ALKALI
(chem) (biocon). Any of various BASES, which neutralize ACIDS to form SALTS. Bases are important in maintaining the chemical balance in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
F – alcali
S – alcali
ALKALINE BATTERY
(elec). A BATTERY that uses sodium or potassium hydroxide as an electrolyte, and nickel-oxide flakes and powdered iron or nickel-cadmium for its active plates.
F – accumulateur alcalin
S – pila alcalina
ALKANE
(chem). A general name for hydrocarbons of the METHANE series.
F – paraffine
S – alcano
ALTERNATING CURRENT
(elec). An electric current that periodically reverses its direction. Generally abbreviated as ac.
F – courant alternatif
S – courriente continua
ALTERNATIVE COMBUSTION ENGINES
(auto). Alternatives to the spark ignition and the diesel combustion engines. Among the more developed designs are the GAS TURBINE and STIRLING ENGINES.
F – substituts aux moteurs a combustion
S – motores de combustion alterna
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES
(gen). Sources of ENERGY different from those generally employed by a user. The term usually refers to RENEWABLE ENERGY sources such as SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, GEOTHERMAL POWER, HYDROPOWER, etc. The use of alternative energy sources is attractive because of the [1] high price and limited availability of petroleum-based fuels; [2] the pollution that is associated with the burning of FOSSIL FUELS; and [3] the expense and dangers of nuclear power.
F – sources d’energie de substitution
S – fuentes alternas de energia
ALTERNATOR
(elec). A GENERATOR that changes mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy (ALTERNATING CURRENT) by the rotation of its ROTOR. Alternators are used in motor vehicles to recharge and minimize the drain on the BATTERY. They are also commonly adapted to be driven by WINDMILLS or by STEAM TURBINES and WATER TURBINES.
F – alternateur
S – alternador
ALUMINIZED MYLAR
(constr) (sol). A very strong, thin sheet of plastic material coated with aluminum. Used as a reflective surface for SOLAR COOKERS.
F – Mylar aluminise
S – Milar aluminizado
AMBIENT
(gen). Referring to undisturbed environmental surroundings, particularly to air and temperature.
F – ambiant
S – ambiente
ANAEROBES
(bio). (See: ANAEROBIC BACTERIA)
F – anaerobies
S – anaerobes
ANAEROBIC
(bio). Pertaining to micro-organisms that can live in an airless environment.
F – anaerobie
S – anaerobio
ANAEROBIC BACTERIA
(bio) (biocon). BACTERIA, known as ANAEROBES, that can live in an airless environment by obtaining oxygen through the DECOMPOSITION of compounds.
F – bacteries anaerobies
S – bacteria anaerobia
ANAEROBIC DIGESTER
(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)
F – digesteur anaerobie
S – digestor anaerobio
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
(bio) (biocon). The DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER by ANAEROBIC BACTERIA. This process involves ACID-forming BACTERIA and METHANE-forming bacteria.
F – digestion anaerobie
S – digestion anaerobia
ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION
(bio) (biocon). (See: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION)
F – fermentation anaerobie
S – fermentacion anaerobia
ANAEROBIC ORGANISMS
(bio) (biocon). (See: ANAEROBIC BACTERIA)
F – organismes anaerobies
S – organismos anaerobios
ANCHOR
(wind) (impl). A rod or stake driven into the ground, to which GUY WIRES for a WINDMILL TOWER are attached.
F – ancrage
S – ancla
ANDIRON
(impl). Raised metal bars placed on a fireplace hearth to support firewood for burning. Andirons allow air to pass under the burning wood for more EFFICIENT combustion.
F – chenets
S – morillo
ANEMOMETER
(wind) (meas). An instrument for measuring WIND SPEED.
F – anenometre
S – anemometro
ANGLE OF ATTACK
(wind). The angle between the CHORD of an AIRFOIL and the wind. It is considered in WINDMILL ROTOR design.
F – angle d’attaque
S – angulo de ataque
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE
(sol). (See: INCIDENT ANGLE)
F – angle incident
S – angulo de incidencia
ANGLE OF REFLECTION
(sol). (See: INCIDENT ANGLE)
F – angle de reflexion
S – angulo de reflexion
ANHYDROUS
(alc) (biocon). Free from moisture. The term applies to oxides, SALTS, and other substances that do not contain water.
F – anhydre
S – anhidro
ANHYDROUS ALCOHOL
(alc). ALCOHOL that is almost completely free from water. Alcohol must be ANHYDROUS to be mixed with gasoline to form GASAHOL. Alcohol and water cannot be separated beyond 199.99 PROOF. At that CONCENTRATION, they form an AZEOTROPE and vaporize at the same temperature.
F – alcool anhydre
S – alcohol etilico anhidro
ANIMAL-DRAWN
(ani). (See: ANIMAL-POWERED)
F – animal de trait
S – traccion animal
ANIMAL-POWERED
(ani). Driven or impelled by animals.
F – traction animale
S – impulsado por animales
ANIMAL WASTE CONVERSION
(biocon). The process of directly burning or obtaining ENERGY PRODUCTS from animal wastes.
F – conversion des dechets animaux
S – conversion de los desechos animales
ANNUAL LOAD FRACTION
(sol) (meas). That portion of annual heating that is supplied to a building by SOLAR ENERGY.
F – part de la charge annuelle
S – fraccion de la carga anual
ANNULAR SAIL
(wind) (arc). A ring-like SAIL with radial SHUTTERS.
F – aile annulaire
S – aspa circular
ANTICLOCK SAIL
(wind) (arc). A SAIL ROTOR that runs counterclockwise when observed from the front of the WINDMILL.
F – aile a rotation positive
S – aspa sinistrorsa
AQUATIC BIOMASS
(biocon). BIOMASS grown in fresh or saltwater, including ALGAE, seaweed, etc.
F – biomasse aquatique
S – biomasa acuatica
AQUEDUCT
(hydr). A CHANNEL or trough built to convey water For irrigation, to operate a HYDROPOWER plant, or for household use. The water in aqueducts generally flows by means of gravity, although pumps may also be used.
F – aqueduc
S – acueducto
AQUIFER
(hydr). Any geological formation containing water, especially one that supplies the water for wells, springs, etc.
F – aquifere
S – acuifera
ARTICULATED WINDMILL
(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL constructed to provide maximum EFFICIENCY in winds of various speeds and from different directions.
F – eolienne articulee
S – molino de viento articulado
ASH BOX
(heat). A removable box below the [[#GRATE]] in a [[#WOOD STOVE]] or a [[#PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR]] that collects ash residue from combustion.
F – cendrier
S – caja de cenizas
ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
(elec) (wind). An electrical GENERATOR that produces ALTERNATING CURRENT, matching an existing POWER source so the two sources can be combined to power one LOAD. These generators are often used with WINDMILLS to provide power to buildings that already receive power from an electric utility.
F – generateur asynchrone
S – generador asincronico
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
(gen). The pressure exerted by the Earth’s atmosphere at any given point, generally measured on a scale based on the pressure of air at sea level.
F – pression atmospherique
S – presion atmosferica
ATRIUM
(sol). An unroofed, partially roofed, or fully roofed courtyard or room in a dwelling, which allows sunlight to reach adjoining rooms. It is often used for PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING.
F – atrium
S – atrio
ATTENUATION
(alc). The fall in SPECIFIC GRAVITY of the WORT during FERMENTATION. This is caused by the weakening of BACTERIA or FUNGI in a CULTURE.
F – attenuation
S – atenuacion
AUGER
(impl) (alc). A rotating, screw-type device that moves material through a tube. In ALCOHOL production, it is used to transfer grains from storage to the grinding site, and from the grinding site to the COOKER.
F – vrille d’alimentation
S – barrena
AUTOMATIC DAMPER
(impl). A device that automatically maintains the FLOW of hot or cold air into a room.
F – registre automatique
S – regulador de tiro automatico
AUTOMATIC TRACKING
(sol). The use of a device that allows SOLAR COLLECTORS to “track” or follow the sun during the day without manual adjustment.
F – poursuite automatique
S – aparato de seguimiento automatico
AUXILIARY GENERATOR
(gen) (elec). A small, engine-driven GENERATOR that supplements a RENEWABLE ENERGY POWER source.
F – generateur auxiliaire
S – generador auxiliar
AVAILABLE ENERGY
(gen) (meas). That part of the total ENERGY produced by a system that can be applied usefully. EFFICIENCY is a measure oF available energy.
F – energie disponible
S – energia disponible
AVERAGE WIND SPEED
(wind) (meas). The most common WIND VELOCITY over a specified period of time.
F – vitesse moyenne du vent
S – velocidad promedio del viento
AXIS
(gen). An imaginary line passing through the center of a body, about which the body rotates. (Plural: axes)
F – axe de rotation
S – axis
AXLE
(gen). A supporting member that carries a wheel. It either rotates with the wheel to transmit mechanical POWER, or allows the wheel to rotate freely on it.
F – essieu
S – eje
AZEOTROPE
(chem) (alc). The chemical term for two liquids that, at a certain CONCENTRATION, boil at the same temperature. For example, ETHANOL and water cannot be separated further than 199.9 PROOF because at this concentration they form an azeotrope and vaporize together.
F – azeotrope
S – azeotrope

B

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S LAW
(biocon). A law stating that the VAPOR PRESSURE of a liquid is lowered when a non-VOLATILE substance is dissolved in it. The pressure is lowered by an amount proportional to the CONCENTRATION of the solution.
F – loi de von Babo
S – ley de Babo
BACKPUFFING
(gen). The emission of smoke through cooking holes or other openings in a wood-burning or CHARCOAL stove. It occurs when poor DRAFT in the CHIMNEY causes air to pass back down into the stove.
F – retour de fumee
S – contracorriente de humo
BACK STAYS
(wind) (arc). Support bars across the back of the SAILS of a WINDMILL.
F – galhaubans
S – soporte posterior
BACK WATERING
(hydr). The braking effect caused by the immersion in water of the lowest BLADES of an OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL.
F – frein d’immersion
S – remanso
BACTERIA
(bio). Any of numerous single-celled micro-organisms occurring in a wide variety of forms, existing either as free-living organisms or as parasites, having a wide range of biochemical properties. Bacteria are necessary for DIGESTION and FERMENTATION. (Singular: bacterium)
F – bacteries
S – bacteria
BACTERIAL DECOMPOSITION
(biocon). The chemical breakdown of ORGANIC MATTER by micro-organisms.
F – decomposition bacterienne
S – descomposicion bacteriana
BAFFLE
(gen). A metal plate or other artificial obstruction used to check or deflect the FLOW of FLUIDS.
F – deflecteur
S – desviador
BAGASSE
(biocon). The fibrous residue remaining after the extraction of the juice from sugar cane. It may be used as a fuel.
F – bagasse
S – bagazo
BANCO
(biocon). (See: LORENA STOVE)
F – banco
S – banco
BANKI TURBINE
(hydr). A WATER TURBINE with curved BLADES, GUIDE VANES, and a hallow interior. Water passing through it propels the RUNNER both on entering and leaving. This turbine operates well under a wide HEAD range and FLOW rates.
F – turbine de Banki
S – turbina de Banki
BAROMETER
(meas). A device used to measure ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.
F – barometre
S – barometro
BASES
(alc) (chem). Compounds that dissociate in water solution to form HYDROXYL ions. Bases react with ACIDS to form SALTS, and can be used to maintain the proper pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) balance in an ALCOHOL STILL.
F – bases
S – bases
BATCH DIGESTION
(biocon). A process of BIOGAS production in which the material to be digested is loaded into the DIGESTER at the start of the process. A SEED may also be added at this time. The digester is then sealed and the contents left to FERMENT. At completion, the digested SLUDGE is removed and the tank reloaded. Daily gas production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the DIGESTION cycle.
F – digestion a charge initiale
S – digestion por tandas
BATCH DISTILLATION
(alc). A batch DISTILLATION process of ALCOHOL production in which the material to be distilled is loaded into a STILL at the start of the process. The entire volume is heated and left to distill. At completion, the distilled MASH is removed and the still reloaded. Daily alcohol production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the distillation cycle.
F – distillation a charge initiale
S – destilacion intermitente
BATCH FEED
(gen). A DIGESTER or STILL in which ORGANIC MATTER is loaded, allowed to generate gas or FERMENT, and then removed. The digester or still then is cleaned and prepared for a fresh load of BIOMASS.
F – alimentation initiale unique
S – alimentacion por tandas
BATCH-LOADING DIGESTER
(biocon). (See: BATCH FEED)
F – digesteur a chargement unique
S – digestor de carga intermitente
BATCH PROCESSING
(biocon). (See: BATCH FEED)
F – traitement de charges uniques
S – elaboracion por tandas
Batteries|BATTERY
(elec). A group of two or more CELLS or ACCUMULATORS electrically connected in series or parallel. Batteries are used to store electrical ENERGY.
F – batterie
S – bateria
BATTERY CUT-OUT
(wind) (impl). An automatic switch that disconnects a BATTERY during its charge if the voltage of the wind charger falls below or rises above that of the battery, within certain limits. A battery cut-out is a battery protection device.
F – coupe-circuit de batterie
S – interruptor de bateria
BEARING
(gen). A machine part that supports and guides a shaft, pivot, or wheel that slides, rotates, or oscillates in or on it.
F – palier
S – cojinete
BEARING ANGLE
(sol). (See: SOLAR AZIMUTH)
F – azimut
S – marcacion
BEAUFORT SCALE
(meas) (wind). A scale of WIND VELOCITIES ranging from 0 to 12 as follows:
 
Code Number(mph)Description
0less than 1calm
11-3light air
24-7light breeze
38-12gentle breeze
413-18moderate breeze
519-24fresh breeze
625-31strong breeze
732-38moderate gale; near gale
839-46gale
947-54strong gale
1055-63whole gale (or storm)
1164-74violent storm
12over 74hurricane
F – Beaufort, echelle de
S – escala de Beaufort
BEER COLUMN
(alc). (See: STRIPPING COLUMN)
F – colonne a biere
S – columna de cerveza
BERM
(constr). A manmade mound or small hill of earth built up against a house to stop the INFILTRATION of hot or cold air.
F – banquette
S – monticulo
BEVEL GEAR
(gen). One of a pair of gears used to connect two shafts whose AXES intersect.
F – engrenage conique
S – engranaje biselado
BICYCLE ADAPTER
(gen) (impl). A device that can be attached to a bicycle to supply POWER to pump water, generate electricity, etc.
F – adaptateur de bicyclette
S – adaptador de bicicleta
Pedal power|BICYCLE GENERATOR
(elec). A small GENERATOR that produces DIRECT CURRENT (dc) electricity through PEDAL POWER.
F – generateur a pedalier
S – generador accionado por bicicleta
BIOCONVERSION
(chem) (gen). The conversion of ORGANIC WASTE into ENERGY PRODUCTS through the action of micro-organisms. Chemically, this is the reduction of complex organic compounds into simpler, more stable forms.
F – bioconversion
S – bioconversion
Biofuel|BIOGAS
(biocon). The gaseous mixture produced during ANAEROBIC DIGESTION, composed chiefly of METHANE and carbon dioxide.
F – bio-gaz
S – biogas
BIOGAS DIGESTER
(biocon). An airtight vessel in which ANAEROBIC DIGESTION takes place and from which METHANE may be drawn off.
F – digesteur de bio-gaz
S – digestor de biogas
BIOGAS GENERATOR
(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)
F – generateur de bio-gaz
S – generador de biogas
BIOGAS PLANT
(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)
F – reacteur de bio-gaz
S – planta de biogas
BIOLOGICAL ENERGY CONVERSION
(biocon). The use of BIOMASS to convert one form of ENERGY into another.
F – conversion biologique de l’energie
S – conversion biologica de energia
BIOMASS
(bio). Plants and plant materials, trees, crop residues, wood and bark residues, and animal manures. Any ORGANIC MATTER that can be used in BIOCONVERSION processes.
F – biomasse
S – biomasa
BIOMASS ENERGY
(biocon). The ENERGY that is released from BIOMASS when it is eaten, burned, or otherwise used as or converted into fuel.
F – energie de la biomasse
S – energia de biomasa
BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK
(biocon). The ORGANIC MATTER used to produce ENERGY PRODUCTS through BIOCONVERSION.
F – biomasse d’alimentation
S – alimento seco de la biomasa
BIOMASS FUELS
(biocon). Fuels, such as METHANE, produced from BIOMASS.
F – combustibles de la biomasse
S – combustibles de biomasa
BIOMASS YIELD
(biocon) (meas). The amount of BIOMASS that can be produced in a given areA. It usually is expressed in weight units per area measurement per unit of time.
F – production de biomasse
S – produccion de biomasa
BIOMONITORING
(biocon (meas). A pollution-control method in which living organisms are used to test the EFFLUENT from a DIGESTER to determine whether it is safe to discharge the effluent into a body of water. It may also be used to test the quality of waters downstream from a digester discharge point.
F – controle biologique
S – biocontrol
BITUMEN
(fos). Any naturally-occurring hydrocarbon, especially solid hydrocarbons such as asphalt, wax, pitch, and Gilsonite.
F – bitume
S – bitumen
BLACKBODY
(sol). A surface that completely absorbs all SOLAR RADIATION that strikes it.
F – corps noir
S – cuerpo negro
BLADE
(hydr) (impl) (wind). [1] The curved surface of certain types of WATER TURBINES (i.e., CROSS-FLOW TURBINES). Water striking the blades causes the turbine to rotate. Some turbines, such as the PELTON WHEEL, have cups instead of blades. [2] A single, extended surface of a WINDMILL ROTOR.
F – [1] aube; [2] pale
S – [1] paleta; [2] aspa
BLADE ANGLE]] [1]
(wind). The angle of a CHORD of a WINDMILL BLADE with the ROTOR plane of rotation. [2] (hydr). The INCIDENT ANGLE of a TURBINE BLADE.
F – [1] angle de pale; [2] angle d’aube
S – [1] angulo del aspa; [2] angulo de la paleta
BORE HOLE
(gen). A deep, vertical hole in the earth. Usually used to describe a well.
F – trou de sondage
S – pozo de sondeo
BRACE SOLAR STEAM COOKER
(sol). (See: INSULATED STEAM COOKER)
F – rechaud a vapeur solaire Brace
S – portahornillo de vapor solar Brace
BRAKE
(gen). A device used to slow or stop motion, especially by contact friction.
F – frein
S – freno
Brazing|BRAZING
(gen). A process by which two pieces of metal are joined using a nonferrous alloy with a lower melting point than either of the two metals being joined.
F – brasage
S – soldadura con laton
BREAST BEAM
(wind) (arc). The main lateral beam below the WIND SHAFT.
F – poutrelle maitresse
S – viga de costado
BREAST WHEEL
(hydr). A sophisticated type of WATER WHEEL into which water enters below the top of the wheel and is kept in the BUCKETS until being discharged at or near the lowest point on the wheel. Breast wheels generally operate best with HEADS amounting to less than the diameter of the wheel. High breast wheels (where the water enters above the center shaft) can approach 65 percent ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY. (Syn: breast-shot wheel)
F – roue de poitrine
S – rueda de costado
BREEZE
(wind). In general, any light to moderate wind. (See also: BEAUFORT SCALE)
F – brise
S – brisa
S DRIED GRAIN
(alc). (See: DISTILLERS GRAIN).
F – grains secs de brasserie
S – grano seco de destilacion
BREWING MASH
(alc). Crushed or ground FEEDSTOCK mixed with warm water in preparation for FERMENTATION during the production of ETHANOL.
F – mout de brassage
S – mosto
BRINE
(refrig). A heavy SALT solution used in REFRIGERATION.
F – saumure
S – salmuera
BRIQUETTE
(fos). A type of fuel that has been finely ground and compressed in pressure molds. It is usually made from low-grade coal, coke, CHARCOAL, or BIOMASS, and is mixed with a binder such as STARCH, tar, cement, pitch, or asphalt.
F – briquette
S – briqueta
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT
(heat) (meas). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree FAHRENHEIT under stated conditions of temperature and pressure. It is a standard unit for measuring quantity of HEAT ENERGY. Generally abbreviated as BTU.
F – British thermal unit
S – unidad termica britanica
BUBBLE CAP
(alc). A perforated cap on the plates of a DISTILLATION COLUMN, used to ensure that the vapor and condensed liquid mix thoroughly.
F – cloche de barbotage
S – casquete de burbujeo
BUBBLE CHAMBER
(biocon). A safety device attached to a BIOGAS DIGESTER to ensure that the gas is free of air, since an air and gas mixture would be explosive. The gas is “bubbled” through a container of water before being used or stored. If LIMEWATER is used instead of water, the bubble chamber can also be used to SCRUB the gas. In addition, the bubble chamber serves as a SPARK ARRESTER.
F – chambre a bulles
S – camara de burbujas
BUCKET
(hydr). Cup-shaped containers or BLADES attached to a WATER WHEEL.
F – auget
S – cangilon
BUCKET ANGLE
(hydr). The INCIDENT ANGLE of BUCKETS on a WATER WHEEL.
F – angle d’auget
S – angulo de los cangilones
BUCKET CHAIN
(hydr). A chain loop with BUCKETS attached to it at regular intervals. The chain runs over sprocket wheels. As each bucket passes by a water source, water fills the bucket, providing POWER and propelling the chain further along.
F – noria a godets
S – transportador de cangilones
BUFFER CAPACITY
(biocon) (chem). The capacity of a solution to resist pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) changes when small amounts of ACID or ALKALI are added. In the case of DIGESTED SLUDGE, the ammonium and bicarbonate ions are mainly responsible for buffering.
F – pouvoir tampon
S – capacidad amortiguadora
BUTANOL
(alc). (See: BUTYL ALCOHOL).
F – butanol
S – butanol
BUTYL ALCOHOL
(alc) (chem). An ALCOHOL obtained by the FERMENTATION of sugar or cornstarch. The chemical equivalent of butyl alcohol is C4H9OH. (Syn: butanol)
F – alcool butylique
S – alcohol butilico

C

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
C
(meas). Abbreviation for CELSIUS.
F – C
S – C
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE
(biocon) (chem). A solution that is often used in BUBBLE CHAMBERS to SCRUB BIOGAS. It is commonly known as LIMEWATER.
F – hydrate de calcium
S – hidroxido de calcio
CALORIE
(gen). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree CELSIUS at ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.
F – calorie [1]
S – caloria
CAM
(gen). An eccentric projection on a revolving shaft, shaped to produce variable or reciprocating motion in another contacted or engaged part.
F – came
S – leva
CANAL
(gen) (hydr). An artificial watercourse uniting rivers, lakes, or seas for purposes of inland navigation, irrigation, or conveyance of water to a HYDROPOWER device.
F – canal
S – canal
CANISTER
(wind) (arc). A piece of metal placed at the outer end of a ROTOR SPAR to hold the SAIL in place.
F – douille
S – chapa de fijacion
CAP
(wind) (arc). The revolving top of a TOWER MILL or SMOCK MILL.
F – calotte
S – cumbrera
CAPACITY FACTOR
(elec) (meas). The total KILOWATT HOURS of ENERGY consumed divided by the total KILOWATTS produced by an electricity-generating plant. Generally calculated on an annual basis.
F – facteur de capacite
S – factor de capacidad
CAPACITY OF THE WIND
(wind) (meas). The total amount of dirt and dust particles of a given kind that can be sustained per unit volume of air by a wind of a given velocity.
F – capacite du vent
S – capacidad del viento
CARBOHYDRATE
(alc) (chem). Sugars, STARCHES, CELLULOSE, and other similar compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only. Carbohydrates are excellent FEEDSTOCK for an ALCOHOL STILL.
F – hydrates de carbone
S – carbohidrato
CARBON-TO-NITROGEN RATIO
(biocon). The proportion of carbon to nitrogen in the material being placed in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. This ratio is important for maintaining biogas production. 25:1 is the optimal C/N ratio.
 
MaterialNitrogenCarbon-Nitrogen
 
NameContentRatio
Cow dung1.7%25 to 1
Poultry manure6.3%No carbon
Grass4.0%12 to 1
Sheep manure3.75%No carbon
Urine15-18%8 to 1
Wheat straw0.3%128 to 1
Potato tops1.5%25 to 1
Tomato3.3%128 to 1
F – rapport carbone-azote
S – proporcion de carbon a nitrogeno
CARBURETOR
(auto). A device for mixing and controlling the amount of air and fuel supplied to a gasoline engine.
F – carburateur
S – carburador
CASING
(sol). The framework housing the components of a FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR. It is generally made of metal and lined with material for THERMAL insulation. Inlet and outlet openings are provided.
F – enveloppe
S – envoltura
CATCHMENT APRON
(hydr). A projecting slope on the downstream side of a SLUICE or dam, which is provided to withstand the force of falling water.
F – pente de captage
S – plataforma colectora
CELL
(elec). A device that generates electricity, traditionally consisting of two plates or conducting surfaces placed in an electrolytic FLUID.
F – element
S – celula
CELLULASE
(bio) (alc). Any of several ENZYMES found in FUNGI, BACTERIA, and lower animals that cause CELLULOSE to break down in water. These enzymes are needed for ALCOHOL DISTILLATION.
F – cellulase
S – celulase
CELLULOSE
(chem) (alc). The main POLYSACCHARIDE in living plants. Cellulose forms the skeletal structure of plant cell walls and can be HYDROLYZED to form GLUCOSE.
F – cellulose
S – celulosa
CELLULOSIC BIOMASS
(biocon). BIOMASS that contains vegetable matter.
F – biomasse cellulosique
S – biomasa celulosica
CELSIUS
(meas). The international temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 [degrees] and boils at 100 [degrees]. To convert from degrees Celsius to degrees FAHRENHEIT, multiply the temperature in degrees Celsius by 9/5 (or 1.8) and add 32. To convert from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature and then multiply by 5/9. Abbreviated as C. (Syn: centigrade)
F – Celsius
S – Celsio
CENTIGRADE
(meas). (See: CELSIUS).
F – centigrade
S – centigrado
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
(gen). The inertial force repelling a body away from the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or away from the AXIS around which it rotates. The opposite of CENTRIPETAL FORCE.
F – force centrifuge
S – centrifuga, fuerza
CENTRIPETAL FORCE
(gen). A force attracting a body toward the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or toward the AXIS around which it rotates. The apposite of CENTRIFUGAL FORCE.
F – force centripete
S – centripeta , fuerza
CHALK ADOBE
(constr). A method of making ADOBE bricks in which chalk is added to the clay, straw, and water. Chalk adobe is useful as a THERMAL MASS.
F – adobe a la chaux
S – mezcla de adobe y creta
CHANNEL
(hydr). The bed of a stream or waterway. (See also: CANAL)
F – chenal [1]
S – cauce
CHARCOAL
(fos) (gen). A dark-colored or black porous form of CARBON made from vegetable or animal substances. Charcoal commonly is made by charring wood in a KILN or RETORT from which air is partially excluded. It is used for FUEL, and in various mechanical, artistic, and chemical processes. By using DISTILLATION and retorts to produce charcoal, several valuable products can be collected that would otherwise be lost, including COMBUSTIBLE GASES, CREOSOTE OIL, METHANOL, soluble tar, and combustible pitch.
F – charbon de bois
S – carbon
CHARCOAL GAS
(prod). (See: PRODUCER GAS)
F – gaz de charbon de bois
S – gas de carbon
CHIMNEY
(constr). A vertical passage or FLUE through which smoke and gases escape from a stove or fireplace.
F – cheminee
S – chimenea
CHIMNEY CAP
(constr). A cone, usually made of sheet metal, placed pointed end up slightly above the top of a CHIMNEY. It prevents rain and debris from falling into the chimney.
F – mitre
S – sombrerete de chimenea
CHINESE-TYPE DIGESTER
(biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER that is primarily designed to produce fertilizer. Usually a FIXED-DOME DIGESTER.
F – digesteur type chinois
S – digestor de tipo chino
CHORD
(wind). The distance from the LEADING EDGE to the TRAILING EDGE of an AIRFOIL. The term refers to WINDMILL BLADE design.
F – profondeur de l’aile
S – profundidad del aspa
CHULA
(biocon). A small, wood-burning stove, usually made of mud, clay, brick, or metal. The term is widely used in South Asia.
F – chula
S – chula
CIRCULAR FOCUSING COLLECTOR
(sol). (See: COMPOUND PARABOLIC COLLECTOR)
F – capteur circulaire a concentration
S – colector circular de enfoque
CISTERN
(hydr). An artificial reservoir or watertight tank for storing water or other liquids.
F – citerne
S – cisterna
CLAMPS
(wind) (arc). Wooden splints bolted to the sides of the STOCKS, locking the SAIL assembly in the POLL END.
F – eclisses
S – prensas
CLEARNESS INDEX
(sol) (meas). A SOLAR ENERGY concept introduced to express the ratio of a particular hour, day, or month’s SOLAR RADIATION on a horizontal surface to the EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR RADIATION on that same surface for the same period of time. It is useful in calculating DIFFUSE RADIATION and RADIATION falling on a tilted surface.
F – indice de clarte
S – indice de claridad
CLERESTORY
(sol). A vertical window that is placed high in a wall near the eaves for light, HEAT GAIN, and ventilation.
F – lanterneau
S – claraboya
CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM
(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system in which distilled water, antifreeze, and/or corrosion inhibitors are circulated through the COLLECTORS and storage tanks in a closed loop. Heat picked up from the collectors by the circulating FLUIDS is transferred to the water in the storage tanks through the closed loop or other HEAT EXCHANGERS.
F – circuit ferme, systeme de
S – sistema de ciclo cerrado
C/N
(biocon). (See: CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO)
F – C/N
S – C/N
COAL GASIFICATION
(prod). The combustion of coal to form a gas suitable for use as a fuel. This is usually done in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR.
F – gazeification du charbon
S – gasificacion del carbon
COB ADOBE
(constr). A type of ADOBE in which corn cobs are added to clay, water, and straw. Adobe bricks are reinforced by this addition of cobs during the brick-making process. Cob adobe is a useful THERMAL MASS.
F – adobe a la rafle de mais
S – mezcla de paja, arcilla, agua y mazorcas
COLLECTION
(sol). The act of trapping SOLAR RADIATION.
F – captation
S – captacion
COLLECTOR
(sol). A device to trap SOLAR RADIATION and convert it into usable heat. The term collector frequently refers to an insulated frame containing a panel made from an ABSORBER PLATE and GLAZING. More broadly, a well-designed building with windows facing the equator may also be considered a collector, as can other solar devices that capture SOLAR RADIATION in the form of heat.
F – capteur
S – colector
COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY
(sol) (meas). The ratio of SOLAR ENERGY absorbed by a COLLECTOR to the RADIANT ENERGY falling on the collector.
F – rendement d’un collecteur
S – eficiencia del colector
HEAT-EXCHANGER CORRECTION FACTOR
(sol) (meas). An index that indicates how much useful SOLAR ENERGY is lost during the exchange of heat from the COLLECTOR to the storage tank in LIQUID-BASED SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS.
F – coefficient de correction capteur-echangeur de chaleur
S – factor de correccion del colector/termopermutador
COLLECTOR-HEAT REMOVAL EFFICIENCY FACTOR
(sol) (meas). The ratio of actual useful HEAT GAIN of a FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR to the heat gain if the entire COLLECTOR PLATE were at the same temperature as the inlet FLUID.
F – coefficient de rendement capteur-echangeur de chaleur
S – factor de eficiencia del colector-termoextractor
COLLECTOR PLATE
(sol). A metal sheet in a SOLAR COLLECTOR whose primary function is to absorb as much as possible of the SOLAR RADIATION reaching it through the GLAZING, while losing as little heat as possible as it transfers the retained heat to the HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM.
F – plaque collectrice
S – placa colectora
COLLECTOR TILT ANGLE
(sol) (meas). The angle between the plane of the horizon and the surface of a SOLAR COLLECTOR, generally used to maximize the COLLECTION of SOLAR RADIATION.
F – inclinaison d’un capteur
S – angulo de inclinacion del colector
COMBUSTIBLE GAS
(biocon) (prod). Gas that will burn. This includes BIOGAS, PRODUCER GAS, and other VOLATILE FLUIDS.
F – gaz combustible
S – gas combustible
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
(heat). The place in a stove where fuel is burned.
F – chambre de combustion
S – camara de combustion
COMBUSTION ZONE
(prod). The section in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which the FEEDSTOCK is burned.
F – zone de combustion
S – zona de combustion
COMMON SAIL
(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL SAIL that is covered with a canvas cloth.
F – aile de moulin
S – aspa comun
COMPOSTED SLUDGE
(biocon). SLUDGE that has been rendered relatively PATHOGEN-free through COMPOSTING. It generally can be used safely as fertilizer.
F – boues compostees
S – composte de lodos cloacales
COMPOSTING
(biocon). AEROBIC DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER. The resulting material is used as a fertilizer.
F – compostage
S – composte
COMPOUND PARABOLIC COLLECTOR
(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR using parabolic REFLECTORS.
F – capteur parabolique compose
S – colector parabolico compuesto
CONCENTRATING COLLECTOR
(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses REFLECTORS to concentrate DIRECT RADIATION from the sun onto a narrow ABSORBER PLATE to produce intense heat.
F – capteur a concentration
S – colector concentrador
CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY
(sol). A series of lenses or mirrors used to concentrate SOLAR RADIATION onto PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS, which convert the sunlight into electricity. The concentrated sunlight increases the output of each cell, thus reducing the total number of cells required to produce a given amount of electricity. (See also: PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY)
F – groupe photovoltaique de concentration
S – conjunto concentrador fotovoltaico
CONCENTRATING THERMAL COLLECTOR
(sol). (See: CONCENTRATING COLLECTOR)
F – capteur thermique a concentration
S – colector termico concentrador
CONCENTRATION
(gen). The amount of a substance contained in a FLUID per unit volume.
F – concentration
S – concentracion
CONDENSER
(gen) (impl). A device used to change a vapor into a liquid. This can be done either by exposing to air a tube that contains vapor, or by passing the tube through a WATER JACKET.
F – condenseur
S – condensador
CONDUCTION
(heat). Heat transfer from direct contact between a hot body and a cold body.
F – conduction
S – conduccion
CONING
(wind). The practice of tilting up the WIND SHAFT of a WIND MACHINE at a small angle.
F – fuseler
S – movimiento de la pala
CONTINUOUS DIGESTION
(biocon). The continuous feeding of BIOMASS into a BIOGAS DIGESTER, with the removal of an equivalent volume of EFFLUENT. The process is usually started with the addition of a SEED. It may take several DETENTION TIMES before the process becomes steady. For many purposes, this is a more EFFICIENT and convenient process than BATCH DIGESTION. Processes involving daily addition and removal are more properly described as semi-continuous.
F – digestion en continu
S – digestion continua
CONTINUOUS FLOW DIGESTER
(biocon). A DIGESTER into which BIOMASS may be loaded and gas and EFFLUENT recovered without discontinuing digestion.
F – digesteur a flux continu
S – digestor de circulacion continua
CONTINUOUS PROCESSING
(biocon). (See: CONTINUOUS DIGESTION)
F – traitement en continu
S – proceso continuo
CONTINUOUS STILL
(alc). An ALCOHOL STILL into which MASH may be loaded and ALCOHOL recovered without discontinuing alcohol production.
F – alambic a distillation continue
S – alambique continuo
CONTROLLED BURNING ATMOSPHERE
(fos). An atmosphere in which oil or natural gas is burned with just enough oxygen to prevent all the carbon from being consumed. The recovered carbon may be used as a fuel.
F – atmosphere a combustion controlee
S – atmosfera de combustion controlada
CONVECTION
(heat). The transfer of heat between one location or surface and another by the motion of a heat-carrying FLUID. Also, the transfer of heat within a fluid by movements within the fluid.
F – convection
S – conveccion
CONVECTION AIR COOLER
(refrig). A non-electric cooler that depends on the natural circulation of air.
F – refroidisseur par convection d’air
S – enfriador de aire por conveccion
CONVERSION PROCESS
(gen). A process through which ENERGY is converted from one form to another, such as RADIANT ENERGY into heat or electric energy.
F – conversion
S – proceso de conversion
COOKER
(alc). A heated tank with an AGITATOR that heats the MASH as part of the ALCOHOL production process.
F – chaudiere de cuisson
S – caldera de coccion
COOKING
(alc). A heating and stirring process that breaks down STARCH granules, thus making the starch available for the liquefaction and SACCHARIFICATION steps of the ALCOHOL manufacturing process.
F – cuisson
S – coccion
COOK STOVE
(biocon). An apparatus in which fuel is burned to produce heat for cooking.
F – cuisiniere
S – estufa
CO-PRODUCT
(alc). Substances resulting from the production of ETHANOL by FERMENTATION.
F – coproduit
S – coproducto
CORRUGATED METAL SOLAR COLLECTOR
(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses a corrugated metal as its ABSORBER PLATE. The metal is usually painted with FLAT BLACK PAINT.
F – capteur solaire en tole ondulee
S – colector solar de metal corrugado
COVER
(sol). (See: GLAZING)
F – revetement
S – revestimiento
COVER PLATE
(sol). The transparent material placed over a COLLECTOR-ABSORBER PLATE so that heat loss to the atmosphere is reduced and a greater fraction of the SOLAR RADIATION is collected as useable heat.
F – plaque de couverture
S – placa revestidora
CREOSOTE OIL
(gen). A by-product from CHARCOAL production by DISTILLATION. It may be used as a preservative to protect wood from termites, moisture, etc.
F – huile de creosote
S – aceite de creosota
CRETAN SAIL WINDMILL
(wind). (See: CRETAN WINDMILL)
F – moulin a ailes cretois
S – molino de viento con aspas cretanas
CRETAN WINDMILL
(wind). A type of HORIZONTAL AXIS SAIL ROTOR WINDMILL generally having four fixed, triangular SAILS. Cretan windmills are used primarily for low-lift water pumping.
F – moulin a vent cretois
S – molino de viento cretano
CROSS
(wind) (arc). A cruciform iron support for the sail assembly, used as an alternative to the POLL END.
F – croix
S – aspa de hierro
CROSS-FLOW TURBINE
(hydr). (See: BANKI TURBINE)
F – turbine a ecoulement radial
S – turbina con rodete de tambor
CROSSWIND
(wind). Winds blowing crosswise to the direction of the wind stream.
F – vent de travers
S – viento de costado
CULTURE
(bio). A preparation containing micro-organisms that are growing on a medium.
F – bouillon de culture
S – cultivo
CUP ANEMOMETER
(wind) (meas). An ANEMOMETER with three or four cups that rotate with the wind to measure wind speed.
F – anemometre a coquilles
S – anemometro de tazas
CUPS
(hydr). Bowl shaped BLADES found on PELTON WHEELS and other types of IMPULSE TURBINES.
F – godets
S – tazas
CURB
(wind) (arc). In SMOCK MILLS and TOWER MILLS, the circular timber rim or wall plate supporting the revolving cap.
F – chemin de glissement
S – apoyo circular
CURRENT
(elec). The FLOW of electrons through a conductor.
F – courant
S – corriente
CUT-IN SPEED
(wind). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE is activated.
F – vitesse d’enclenchement
S – velocidad de accionamiento
CUT-OUT SPEED
(wind). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE turns out of the wind. (See also: BATTERY CUT-OUT)
F – vitesse de disjonction
S – velocidad de interrupcion
CYLINDER
(hydr). In hydraulic systems, a short, hollow metal tube containing a piston, piston rod, and end seals, and fitted with a system to allow the entrance and exit of FLUIDS.
F – cylindre
S – cilindro

D

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
DAM
(hydr). A structure that detains the FLOW of water in an open CHANNEL or watercourse. POWER dams raise the level of streams or rivers to create or concentrate HEAD for power purposes.
F – barrage
S – represa
DAMPER
(heat). A movable plate or other device for regulating the air-FLOW and burning rate in a stove. It is often located either inside the stove or in the FLUE pipe.
F – registre
S – regulador de tiro
DARRIEUS ROTOR WINDMILL
(wind). A VERTICAL AXIS WIND MACHINE that has long, thin, loop-shaped BLADES connected at the top and bottom of the WIND SHAFT.
F – eolienne a rotor de Darrieus
S – molino de viento de rotor Darrieus
DC
(elec). Abbreviation for DIRECT CURRENT.
F – CC
S – C.C.
DDG
(alc). Abbreviation for DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS. (See: DISTILLERS GRAINS)
F – GSB
S – G.S.D.
DDGS
(alc). Abbreviation for DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS and SOLUBLES. (See: DISTILLER‘s GRAIN)
F – G.S.B.S.
S – G.S.D.S.
DEAD AIR SPACE
(constr) (sol). An empty area within the walls of a building in which the air remains motionless and acts as insulation. Dead air space may be included in a SOLAR COLLECTOR between the ABSORBER PLATE and the GLAZING, between glazings, and in the CASING.
F – espace d’air inerte
S – espacio de aire no renovado
DEAD CURB
(wind) (arc). A ledge supporting the CAP of a WINDMILL without the interposition of WHEELS or ROLLERS.
F – chemin dormant
S – reborde
DEADMAN
(wind). A log or a mass of concrete or steel buried in the ground, to which GUY WIRES for supporting towers and poles are attached.
F – point fixe d’ammarage
S – macizo de anclaje
DECOMPOSITION
(bio) (chem). Decay of ORGANIC MATTER due to the action of BACTERIA. Also the separation of a substance into its component parts by chemical action.
F – decomposition
S – descomposicion
DEEP CYCLE BATTERY
(elec) (wind). A BATTERY that can be fully charged and discharged without shortening its life. They are often used with WIND GENERATORS.
F – batterie a cycle profond
S – bateria de gran ciclo
DEGREE DAY COOLING
(gen) (meas). A measurement used to evaluate the summer cooling requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is above 75 [degrees] F (24 [degrees] C), one cooling degree day is counted.
F – degre-jour de refroidissement
S – enfriamiento de grado-dia
DEGREE DAY HEATING
(gen) (meas). A measurement used to determine the winter heating requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is below 65 [degrees] F (19 [degrees] C) is a heating degree day.
F – degre-jour de chauffage
S – calefaccion de grado-dia
DEHYDRATION
(gen). The removal of moisture from a substance.
F – deshydratation
S – deshidratacion
DENATURE
(alc). The process of adding a substance, often METHANOL, to ETHANOL to make it unfit for human consumption.
F – denaturer
S – desnaturalizar
DEPHLEGMATOR
(alc). (See: ALCOHOL STILL)
F – deflegmateur
S – desflegmador
DESIGN HEAT LOAD
(heat) (meas). The total heat loss from a building during the most severe winter conditions the building is likely to experience.
F – charge thermique nominale
S – carga de calefaccion prevista
DESSICANT
(gen). A substance with an affinity for water, used for drying purposes.
F – dessiccatif
S – desecante
DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION
(alc) (gen). The heating, DECOMPOSITION, and subsequent DISTILLATION of FLUIDS from ORGANIC MATTER (e.g., METHANOL production from wood).
F – distillation destructive
S – destilacion destructora
DETENTION TIME
(biocon) (meas). The amount of time that incoming material is retained in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
F – temps de retention
S – periodo de detencion
DIFFUSED RADIATION
(sol). Indirect, scattered sunlight, which casts no shadow. It is the opposite of DIRECT RADIATION.
F – rayonnement diffus
S – radiacion difusa
DIFFUSION
(chem). The process by which a substance of a greater CONCENTRATION mixes with a substance of a lesser concentration to produce a uniform mixture.
F – diffusion
S – difusion
DIGESTED SLUDGE
(biocon). The residue remaining after DIGESTION. Digested sludge contains some UNDIGESTED SOLIDS and stabilized ORGANIC MATTER.
F – boues digerees
S – sedimento digerido
DIGESTED SLURRY
(biocon). (See: DIGESTED SLUDGE)
F – boue digeree
S – fango digerido
DIGESTER
(biocon). The tank in which ANAEROBIC DIGESTION takes place.
F – digesteur
S – digestor
DIGESTER TANK
(bio). The reservoir area in a BIOGAS DIGESTER in which DIGESTION of ORGANIC MATTER takes place. It usually has some gas holding capacity, and provides For the collection and removal of SCUM and SLUDGE.
F – reservoir digesteur
S – tanque digestor
DIGESTION
(biocon). The process by which ORGANIC MATTER is decomposed by the action of ANAEROBIC BACTERIA, producing METHANE and high-grade fertilizer.
F – digestion
S – digestion
DILUTION RATE
(biocon) (meas). The frequency with which water is added to a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
F – taux de dilution
S – tasa de dilucion
DIRECT CONVERSION
(sol). The transformation of sunlight to electricity without an intervening thermodynamic cycle.
F – conversion directe
S – conversion directa
DIRECT CURRENT
(elec). A continuous, one-directional FLOW of electricity, such as that from a BATTERY. Commonly abbreviated as dc.
F – courant continu
S – corriente continua
DIRECT GAIN SYSTEM
(sol). (See: DIRECT SOLAR GAIN)
F – gain direct, systeme de
S – sistema de ganancia directa
DIRECT METHODS OF SOLAR HEATING
(sol). SOLAR HEATING techniques in which SOLAR RADIATION enters a building through windows and SKYLIGHTS and is trapped inside to warm a room.
F – chauffage solaire direct
S – metodos directos de calefaccion solar
DIRECT RADIATION
(sol). Sunlight that has traveled a straight path from the sun. It is the opposite of DIFFUSED RADIATION.
F – rayonnement direct
S – radiacion directa
DIRECT SOLAR ENERGY
(sol). ENERGY acquired From conversion of DIRECT RADIATION.
F – energie solaire directe
S – energia solar directa
DIRECT SOLAR GAIN
(sol). A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which SOLAR RADIATION passes through and warms a room in a dwelling before being stored in THERMAL MASS for longterm heating.
F – apport solaire direct
S – ganancia solar directa
DISCHARGE PIPE
(hydr) (biocon). [1] The pipe through which water exits from a WATER TURBINE. [2] The outlet for EFFLUENT from a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
F – [1] tube de decharge; [2] tuyau d’evacuation
S – tubo de descarga
DISTILLATE
(alc). The portion of a liquid that is removed from a solid or semisolid as a vapor and CONDENSED during the DISTILLATION process. ETHANOL is a distillate of FERMENTED MASH. (See also: SOLAR DISTILLATE)
F – distillat
S – destilado
DISTILLATION
(alc). An evaporation and recondensation process by which liquids are separated into various fractions according to their boiling points. ETHANOL is separated by distillation from MASH and water.
F – distillation
S – destilacion
DISTILLATION COLUMN
(alc). (See: STILL COLUMN)
F – colonne de distillation
S – columna de destilacion
S DRIED GRAIN
(DDG) (alc). (See: DISTILLERS GRAIN)
F – grains secs de brasserie
(GSB)
S – grano seco de destilacion
(GSD)
S GRAIN
(alc). A by-product of ETHANOL production. Once ethanol has been driven from the MASH in an ALCOHOL STILL, the remaining solids are known as distiller’s grain. When dried, these grains can be used as high protein animal feed. The dried distiller’s grain commonly is abbreviated as DDG. (Syn: BREWERS DRIED GRAIN)
F – grains de distillerie
S – grano de destilacion
S MASH
(alc). (See: SPENT MASH)
F – mout de distillateur
S – mezcla de destilacion
DOUBLE CHAMBER
(biocon). A type of BIOGAS DIGESTER in which the GASHOLDER is separate from the DIGESTER TANK.
F – chambre double
S – camara doble
DOUBLE-GLAZING
(sol). [1] A cover for a SOLAR COLLECTOR that is made from two layers of GLAZING materials. [2] Double-glass windows designed to serve as insulation for buildings.
F – [1] vitre double; [2] double vitrage
S – vidriado doble
DOUBLE-SHUTTERED
(wind) (arc). PATENT SAILS or SPRING SAILS fitted with SHUTTERS on both sides of the WHIP.
F – double volets, a
S – doble postigo
DOWNCOMER
(alc) (impl). A component of an ALCOHOL STILL. When water is separated from ALCOHOL during DISTILLATION, the water falls toward the bottom of the STILL COLUMN through a pipe called a downcomer.
F – deversoir
S – tubo de descenso
DOWNDRAFT
(gen) (prod). [1] A type of PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which air and gas FLOWS from the top of the COMBUSTION ZONE down through to the bottom. [2] KILNS or other types of ovens and stoves in which CONVECTION or combustion air flows down through the device.
F – [1] tirage en bas; [2] tirage inverse
S – corriente descendiente
DOWNWIND
(wind). On the side opposite the WIND DIRECTION.
F – sous le vent
S – con el viento
DRAFT
(heat). The FLOW of air through a KILN, stove, oven, fireplace, PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR, etc. Draft affects both temperature and rate of combustion.
F – tirage
S – tiro de aire
DRAG
(wind). An aerodynamic force that retards the motion of lift-type ROTOR blades, or that causes BLADE motion in DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINES.
F – trainee
S – resistencia aerodinamica
DRAG-TYPE SYSTEM
(wind). WIND MACHINES that are actuated by aerodynamic DRAG in a WIND STREAM (e.g., SAVONIUS ROTOR).
F – type a trainee, systeme du
S – sistema del tipo de arrastre
DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINE
(wind). A WIND MACHINE that rotates by being pushed by the wind instead of by being driven by LIFT forces. This is generally a slow-moving device.
F – eolienne a trainee
S – aerogenerador del tipo de arrastre
DRAIN DOWN SOLAR COLLECTOR
(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that will automatically drain itself to protect against freezing.
F – capteur solaire a evacuation automatique
S – colector solar con drenaje
DRY BIOMASS
(gen). Moisture-free BIOMASS. It is valuable because it can be conveniently stored for long periods of time. (See also: DRY ORGANIC WASTE)
F – biomasse seche
S – biomasa seca
DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE
(meas). The temperature of air as indicated by a standard thermometer, as contrasted with WET-BULB TEMPERATURE that depends on atmospheric humidity. This measure of AMBIENT temperature is used in designing PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.
F – temperature au thermometre sec
S – temperatura de bola seca
DRY DIGESTION
(biocon). DIGESTION in which more than 10 percent of the SLURRY is solid material.
F – digestion seche
S – digestion seca
DRYING BED
(biocon). An area prepared for drying EFFLUENT after it hs been removed from a METHANE DIGESTER. Dried effluent can be used as fertilizer or as animal feed.
F – lit de sechage
S – lecho secador
DRY ORGANIC WASTE
(gen). ORGANIC WASTE that is free from moisture. This type of waste can be stored for long periods before being used as a fuel or fertilizer. (See also: DRY BIOMASS)
F – dechets organiques secs
S – desperdicios organicos secos
DRY SLURRY
(biocon). SLURRY that is more than 10 percent solid material.
F – boue seche
S – fango seco
DRY STEAM
(geo). An ENERGY source obtained when hot water boils in an underground reservoir. As the steam rises, some of it condenses on surrounding rack. The uncondensed steam that reaches the surface is called dry steam, and may be tapped and used in STEAM TURBINES.
F – vapeur seche
S – vapor seco
DUAL-FUEL ENGINE
(auto) (gen). A gasoline or diesel engine equipped to operate on an alternative fuel, either alternately or in combination (e.g., gasoline-BIOGAS, diesel-biogas, gasoline-WOOD GAS, diesel-wood gas).
F – moteur polycarburant
S – motor a doble combustible
DUNG
(bio). Manure, usually without urine. Dried dung can be burned directly as a fuel or used as a fertilizer.
F – fumier
S – estiercol
DUNG GAS
(biocon). (See: BIOGAS)
F – gaz de fumier
S – gas de estiercol
DYNAMO
(elec). A device for converting mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction. Dynamos are often adapted to be driven by WINDMILLS. (See also: ALTERNATOR)
F – dynamo
S – dinamo
DYNAPOD
(gen) (impl). A pedal-operated POWER source. It is used to drive a variety of machines and devices.
F – dynapod
S – dynapod

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EARTH KILN
(heat). A relatively inefficient KILN made by mounding earth over the materials to be burned. Used in traditional CHARCOAL production.
F – meule a charbon de bois
S – horno de tierra
ECCENTRIC WHEEL
(gen). A wheel in which the axle is not at the center point, but slightly off-center.
F – roue excentrique
S – rueda excentrica
ECONOMIZER
(heat). A HEAT EXCHANGER that recovers heat from FLUE gases and uses it to heat feedwater or combustion air.
F – economiseur
S – economizador
EFFECTIVENESS
(heat) (meas). The ratio of actual heat transfer in a HEAT EXCHANGER to the maximum possible heat transfer.
F – efficacite
S – eficacia
EFFICIENCY
(gen). The ratio of the ENERGY output to the energy input. Efficiency is usually expressed as a percentage.
F – rendement
S – eficiencia
EFFLUENT
(biocon). [1] SLURRY that has been removed from a BIOGAS PLANT. [2] Liquid sewage after having passed through any stage in its purification.
F – effluent
S – efluente
EMISSIVITY
(sol). The ratio of RADIANT ENERGY emitted by a body to that emitted by a perfect BLACKBODY. A perfect blackbody has an emissivity of one; a perfect REFLECTOR, an emissivity of zero.
F – emissivite
S – emisividad
EMITTANCE
(sol) (meas). A rating of the ability of a material to give off heat as RADIANT ENERGY.
F – emittance
S – emitancia
ENERGY
(gen). The capacity of a body to do work; POWER in action.
F – energie
S – energia
ENERGY CAPABILITY OF AN ELECTRICITY-PRODUCING DEVICE
(gen) (meas). The maximum amount of electricity that an electricity-producing device may produce under the best conditions during a given period. ENERGY capability is determined by the mechanical EFFICIENCY of the device.
F – capacite energetique d’un dispositif produisant du courant
S – capacidad energetica de un aparato productor de electricidad
ENERGY CONSERVATION
(gen). Practices and measures that increase the EFFICIENCY with which ENERGY is used or produced.
F – conservation de l’energie
S – conservacion de energia
ENERGY CONSUMPTION
(gen). The amount of ENERGY consumed in the form in which it is obtained by the user. This term excludes electrical generation and distribution losses. It also is called net energy consumption.
F – consommation d’energie
S – consumo de energia
ENERGY CONVERSION
(gen). The act of changing ENERGY from one form to another (e.g., WIND ENERGY to mechanical energy).
Mechanical -> Electrical
Wind Generator 40%
Water Turbine 68-93%
Steam Power Plant 40%
Mechanical -> Mechanical
Windmill 20-30%
Waterwheel 70-85%
Solar -> Thermal
Flat Collector 40-60%
Concentrator 80-90%
Chemical -> Thermal
Wood Combustion Burner 85% maximum
Chemical -> Electrical
Battery 80%
(Storage)
Chemical -> Chemical
Biogas Digester 40-60%
F – conversion de l’energie
S – conversion de energia
ENERGY PATTERN FACTOR
(wind). The ratio of the available ENERGY in all of the winds in a particular location over a certain period of time to the energy that would be available if the WIND SPEED over that period of time were constant at the mean wind speed over that period of time.
F – coefficient de diagramme energetique
S – factor energetico del viento
ENERGY PRODUCTS
(gen). Fuels that can be used to generate ENERGY. Also, the by-products that result when fuels are produced.
F – combustibles energetiques
S – productos energeticos
ENERGY STORAGE
(gen) (meas). The ability to convert ENERGY into other forms, such as heat or a chemical reaction, so that it can be retrieved for later use. Also the development, design, construction, and operation of devices for storing energy until needed. The technology includes devices such as batteries, pumped storage for hydroelectric generation and compressed gas.
F – stockage de l’energie
S – almacenamiento de energia
RENEWABLE ENERGY STORAGE
 Storage MediumStorage Efficiency (%)Major Loss CharacteristicsCost*Complexity**
SOLAR (Heat)Water75-90Leaks (thermal & physical)21
 EarthvariesLeaks (thermal)11
 Rock60-80Leaks (thermal)22
 Salt Hydrates75-95Material Breakdown33
WIND/WATER (Mechanical)Pumped Water50-70Evaporation, Friction12
 Compressed Air40-50Leaks, Friction22
WIND/WATER (Electrical)Battery70-85Internal Discharge33
METHANETank Leaks12
 Tank (compressed)50-60 33
ALCOHOLTank Leaks, Evaporation11
* Relative Cost  1 = Negligible
   2 = Intermediate
** Degree of Mechanical Complexity  3 = Considerable
ENHANCEMENT
(sol). Increasing the amount of sunlight transmitted through the GLAZING in a SOLAR COLLECTOR through the use of a REFLECTOR.
F – renforcement
S – intensificacion
ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS
(alc). The use of ENZYMES to convert STARCH into simple sugars. This is a stage in the production of ETHANOL.
F – saccharification enzymatique
S – hidrolisis enzimica
ENZYMES
(chem) (alc). Organic substances that are produced in the cells of living organisms, and which cause specific chemical changes. Enzymes are produced by BACTERIA or FUNGI and are used in the liquefication and SACCHARIFICATION steps of ALCOHOL production.
F – enzymes
S – enzimas
EOLIAN
(wind). Of, relating to, formed by, or deposited by the wind or air currents. (Syn: Aeolian)
F – eolien, eolienne
S – eolico
EQUINOX
(sol). Either of two times of year when the sun passes over the celestial equator and when the length of day and night are almost equal.
F – equinoxe
S – equinoccio
ETHANOL
(alc). A Flammable organic compound (C[H.sub.3]C[H.sub.2]OH) formed during sugar FERMENTATION. It is also called ethyl alcohol, GRAIN ALCOHOL, or simply